UAV :  Unmanned Aerial Vehicles News in India

DGCA rules for Drones in India

What is RPA or Drones or UAV or UAS

Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), autonomous aircraft and model aircraft are various sub-sets of unmanned aircraft. Unmanned aircraft system (UAS) is an aircraft and its associated elements, which are operated with no pilot on board.
Most of us know these vehicle as Drones.

Why DGCA regulates Drones in India

DGCA stands for THE DIRECTOR GENERAL OF CIVIL AVIATION . It is regulatory authority for civilian air traffic. DGCA makes rules for civilian aviation sector. any use of civilian airspace must be approved by DGCA. Drones or UAVs uses civilian airspace hence there operations must be approved by DGCA for using it in India.

DGCA approved categories for Drones

Civil RPA is categorized in accordance with Maximum All-Up-Weight (including payload) as indicated below:
i) Nano : Less than or equal to 250 grams.
ii) Micro : Greater than 250 grams and less than or equal to 2 kg.
iii) Small : Greater than 2 kg and less than or equal to 25 kg.
iv) Medium : Greater than 25 kg and less than or equal to 150 kg.
v) Large : Greater than 150 kg.

Which category drone does not require permission from DGCA

Only nano class drone does not need permission for operating them under 60feet altitude.
Or
All military drones or UAV does not come under DGCA preview

What type of Approvals/Clearances required before applying for DGCA manufacturing license

1. ETA from WPC Wing, Department of Telecommunication for RPA operating in de-licensed frequency band(s), as applicable.
2. Security Clearance from Ministry of Home Affair. Individuals shall either obtain security clearance from MHA or submit self-attested copies of at least two out of three valid identity proofs viz. Passport, Driving License or Aadhar Card. In case of foreign remote pilots employed by Indian entity , DGCA shall forward documents for Security clearance to security agencies in accordance with the procedure being followed for Foreign Aircrew Temporary Authorization (FATA) pilots.

How to Build a Drone at Home in India

In this post I will explain How to build Quadcopter.

How to Build Drone at Home in India

  1. What is Drone

    Drone is commanly used for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) or unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). Drone can fly autonomously without human intervention or Pilots help. To achieve autonomy autopilot is used in drones.

  2. What is Autopilot

    The literal meaning of autopilot is a device that steers a ship, plane, or spacecraft by itself, without a person . This is achieved using hardware and software. Autopilot has sensors like IMU, GPS , Barometer which estimate vehicles position in 3D space.

  3. List of Parts Required to Build a Drone

    Here I will mention parts used for building Quadcopter
    Quadcopter Frame
    Brushless motor
    Electronic Speed Controller ( ESC )to control speed of motors
    Autopilot or Flight controller
    Battery
    Propellers
    Transmitter and Receiver
    Other items you will need are wires, 3.5mm bullet connectors, solder iron.

  4. Assembling Quadcopter Frame

    We have to assemble quadcopter Frame. To assemble frame we need to follow instruction given in manual provided with frame.

  5. Mounting Motors

    Each frame comes with motor mounting. We have to mount motors on the arms of frame. Make sure you tighten them firmly so that they will not loss due to vibration while flying

  6. ESC calibration

    ESC have current rating on them with compatible battery make sure you are using correct ESC as per motor requirement.
    ESC is calibrated using Transmitter. In calibration we store max and minimum value of throttle.

  7. AutoPilot configuration

    Depending on our autopiot selection we have to configure it. Mostly used autopilot is Pixhawk 2.1 Cube. I will share another post with video tutorial on how to use Pixhawk 2.1

Long Range Telemetry Modem- RFD900x

Long Range Telemetry Modem- RFD900x

RFD900x Telemetry Modem all the great features of the popular RFD900+, plus AES encryption and PPM passthrough!. This is the ideal solution for long range telemetry or communications.  Two RFD900x modems with antennas for all antenna ports.

Features

  • New Processor, ARM 32 bit core.
  • Air data rate: 500kbit/s.
  • AES Hardware accelerated encryption.
  • RC PPM Passthrough with telemetry.
  • Fully ESD protected + filtered – Every IO port is protected and filtered.
  • Original SiK point to point, multipoint firmware implemented.
  • Asynchronous multipoint firmware *Beta release*
  • Long range +40km depending on antennas and GCS setup
  • 2 x RP-SMA RF connectors, diversity switched.
  • 1 Watt (+30dBm) maximum transmit power.
  • Transmit low pass filter.
  • >20dB Low noise amplifier, high IP3.
  • RX SAW filter.
  • Small and lightweight.
  • Compatible with 3DR / Hope-RF radio modules.
  • License free use in Australia, Canada, USA, NZ

 Interfaces

  • RF: 2 x RP-SMA connectors
  • Serial: Logic level TTL (+3.3v), 5v Tolerant
  • Power: +5v, ~800mA max peak (at maximum transmit power)
  • GPIO: 6 General purpose IO (Digital, ADC, PWM capable)

 

Specifications

  • Frequency Range:  902 – 928 MHz (USA) / 915 – 928 MHz (Australia)
  • Output Power: 1W (+30dBm), controllable in 1dB steps ( +/- 1dB @=20dBm typical )
  • Air Data transfer rates: 4, 8, 16, 19, 24, 32, 48, 64, 96, 128, 192 and 250, 500 kbit/sec ( User selectable, 64k default )
  • UART data transfer rates: 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600, 115200, 400k, 921k baud  ( User selectable, 57600 default )
  • Receive Sensitivity: >121 dBm at low data rates, high data rates (TBA)
  • Size: 30 mm (wide) x 57 mm (long) x 12.8 mm (thick) – Including RF shield, heatsink and connector extremities.
  • Weight: 14.5g
  • Mounting: 3 x M2.5 screws, 3 x header pin solder points
  • Power Supply: +5 V nominal, (+3.5 V min, +5.5 V max), ~800 mA peak at maximum power
  • Temp. Range: -40 to +85 deg C, tested operational from -73 to +123 deg C.